This book studies the causes and cures of inflation in a monetary union. It carefully discusses the effects of money growth and output growth on inflation. The focus is on producer inflation, currency depreciation and consumer inflation. For instance, what determines the rate of consumer inflation in Europe, and what in America? Moreover, what determines the rate of consumer inflation in Germany, and what in France? Further topics are real depreciation, nominal and real interest rates, the growth of nominal wages, the growth of producer real wages, and the growth of consumer real wages. Here productivity growth and labour growth play significant roles. Another important issue is target inflation and required money growth. A special feature of this book is the numerical estimation of shock and policy multipliers. The present book is part of a larger research project on monetary union, see Carlberg (1999, 2000, 2001). Over the years, in working on this project, I have benefited from comments by lain Begg, Christopher Bliss, Volker Clausen, Peter Flaschel, Wilfried Fuhrmann, Michael Funke, Franz X. Hof, Jay H. Levin, Alfred MauBner, Hans G. Monissen, Manfred J. M. Neumann, Klaus Neusser, Franco Reither, Michael Schmid, Jiirgen von Hagen, and Helmut Wagner. In addition, Michael Brauninger and Alkis Otto carefully discussed with me all parts of the manuscript. Last but not least, Doris Ehrich did the secretarial work as excellently as ever. I would like to thank all of them.
This book charts the emergence and historical progression of the Security Sector Reform (SSR) model from its infancy at the end of the Cold War up to 2014.
Since its emergence as a concept in the late 1990s, SSR has represented a paradigm shift in security assistance, from the realist, regime-centric, train-and-equip approach of the Cold War to a new liberal, holistic and people-centred model. The rapid rise of this model, however, belied its rather meagre impact on the ground, which was especially problematic in conflict-affected countries. This book critically examines the concept and its record of achievement over the past two decades, putting it into the broader context of peace-building and state-building theory and practice. It focuses attention on the most common, celebrated and complex setting for SSR, conflict-affected environments, and comparatively examines the application and impacts of donor-supported SSR programing in a series of conflict-affected countries over the past two decades, including Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, East Timor and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Afghanistan will receive special attention as a watershed case for SSR. The broader aim of the book is to better understand how the contemporary SSR model has coalesced over the past two decades and become mainstreamed in international development and security policy and practice. This provides a solid foundation to investigate the reasons for the poor performance of the model and to assess its prospects for the future.
This book will be of much interest to students of international security, peacebuilding, statebuilding, development studies and IR in general.
Conflict economics contributes to an understanding of violent conflict in two important ways. First, it applies economic analysis to diverse conflict activities such as war, arms races, and terrorism, showing how they can be understood as purposeful choices responsive to underlying incentives. Second, it treats appropriation as a fundamental economic activity, joining production and exchange as a means of wealth acquisition. Drawing on a half-century of scholarship, this book presents a primer on the key themes and principles of conflict economics. Although much work in the field is abstract, the book is made accessible to a broad audience of scholars, students and policymakers by relying on historical data, relatively simple graphs and intuitive narratives. In exploring the interdependence of economics and conflict, the book presents current perspectives of conflict economics in novel ways and offers new insights into economic aspects of violence.
There was a time, Tozer writes, when our Christian forebears saw the world as it truly is: a battlefield. They knew that hell was a force pitted against God, heaven and righteousness. Tozer fears that now people think of the world as a playground, not a battleground. He exhorts us to appreciate the seriousness of the spiritual struggle we are all engaged in, but also to see it as a battle in which victory is certain.
This special issue covers different aspects of life course development. The central argument of the first paper is that human development should be viewed as the product of the interpenetration of cultural and biological processes. The following article outlines how current sociology constructs life courses. The notion of developmental biocultural co-constructivism and specifically the zone within which human development can be expressed is the focus of the third paper. Next, a developmental account of civic engagement and political participation is provided. Finally, the special issue concludes with a paper marking individual differences in patterns of rhesus monkey biobehavioral development through the life span.
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