The CISG is the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods; a treaty ratified by about 70 countries that provides a uniform international sales law. The occasion of the CISG's 25th anniversary signals something extremely significant in the world of international commercial law: the true coming of age of the CISG, as evidenced by (and as a result of) several thousand available court and arbitration decisions world-wide applying the CISG. To celebrate this occasion, a conference was organized by the University of Pittsburgh's Center for International Legal Education and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL). Drafting Contracts Under the CISG is a collaborative and important result of that conference.
Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provide an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time. The particular form of the party system that emerges from the democratic transition is sustained over time through isomorphic competitive pressures embodied in the new rules of the game, the forms of party organization and the structure of competition that shape party and voter behavior alike.
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